Chronic wounds in patients with Diabetes Mellitus often become incurable due to prolonged and excessive production of inflammatory cytokines. The use of probiotics modifies the intestinal microbiota and modulates inflammatory reactions.
To evaluate the influence of perioperative supplementation with probiotics in the cutaneous healing process in diabetic rats.
Forty-six rats were divided into four groups (C3, P3, C10, P10) according to the treatment (P=probiotic or C=control, both orally administered) and day of euthanasia, 3rd or 10th postoperative days. All rats were induced to Diabetes Mellitus 72 h before starting the experiment with alloxan. Supplementation was initiated five days before the incision and maintained until euthanasia. Scalpel incision was guided by a 2x2 cm mold and the wounds were left to heal per second-intention. The wounds were digitally measured. Collagen densitometry was done with Picrosirius Red staining. Histological parameters were analyzed by staining by H&E.
The contraction of the wound was faster in the P10 group which resulted in a smaller scar area (p=0.011). There was an increase in type I collagen deposition from the 3rd to the 10th postoperative day in the probiotic groups (p=0.016), which did not occur in the control group (p=0.487). The histological analysis showed a better degree of healing in the P10 group (p=0.005), with fewer polymorphonuclear (p<0.001) and more neovessels (p=0.001).
Perioperative supplementation of probiotics stimulates skin wound healing in diabetic rats, possibly due to attenuation of the inflammatory response and increased neovascularization and type I collagen deposition.
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