Laparoscopic total fundoplication is currently considered the gold standard for the surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Short-term outcomes after laparoscopic total fundoplication are excellent, with fast recovery and minimal perioperative morbidity. The symptom relief and reflux control are achieved in about 80 to 90% of patients 10 years after surgery. However, a small but clinically relevant incidence of postoperative dysphagia and gas-related symptoms is reported. Debate still exists about the best antireflux operation; during the last three decades, the surgical outcome of laparoscopic partial fundoplication (anterior or posterior) were compared to those achieved after a laparoscopic total fundoplication. The laparoscopic partial fundoplication, either anterior (180°) or posterior, should be performed only in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease secondary to scleroderma and impaired esophageal motility, since the laparoscopic total fundoplication would impair esophageal emptying and cause dysphagia.
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