Despite major advances in the clinical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, some patients still present with acute colitis and require emergency surgery.
To evaluate the risk factors for early postoperative complications in patients undergoing surgery for acute colitis in the era of biologic therapy.
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease admitted for acute colitis who underwent total colectomy at a single tertiary hospital from 2012 to 2022 were evaluated. Postoperative complications were graded according to Clavien-Dindo classification (CDC). Patients with more severe complications (CDC≥2) were compared with those with less severe complications (CDC<2).
A total of 46 patients underwent surgery. The indications were: failure of clinical treatment (n=34), patients’ or surgeon's preference (n=5), hemorrhage (n=3), toxic megacolon (n=2), and bowel perforation (n=2). There were eight reoperations, 60.9% of postoperative complications classified as CDC≥2, and three deaths. In univariate analyses, preoperative antibiotics use, ulcerative colitis diagnosis, lower albumin levels at admission, and preoperative hospital stay longer than seven days were associated with more severe postoperative complications.
Emergency surgery for acute colitis was associated with a high incidence of postoperative complications. Preoperative use of antibiotics, ulcerative colitis, lower albumin levels at admission, and delaying surgery for more than seven days were associated with more severe early postoperative complications. The use of biologics was not associated with worse outcomes.
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