Use of tranexamic acid (TXA) in trauma has been the subject of growing interest by researchers and health professionals. However, there are still several open questions regarding its use. In some aspects medical literature is controversial. The points of disagreement among experts include questions such as: Which patients should receive TXA in trauma? Should treatment be performed in the pre-hospital environment? Is there any need for laboratory parameters before starting TXA treatment? What is the drug safety profile? The main issue on which there is still no basis in literature is: What is the indication for treatment within massive transfusion protocols?
Answer the questions proposed based on critical evaluation of the evidence gathered so far and carry out a study of cost-effectiveness of TXA use in trauma adapted to the Brazilian reality.
A literature review was performed through searching Pubmed.com, Embase and Cab Abstract by headings "tranexamic AND trauma", in all languages, yielding 426 articles. Manuscripts reporting on TXA utilization for elective procedures were excluded, remaining 79 articles. Fifty-five articles were selected, and critically evaluated in order to answer study questions. The evaluation of cost effectiveness was performed using CRASH-2 trial data and Brazilian official population data.
TXA is effective and efficient, and should be administered to a wide range of patients, including those with indication evaluated in research protocols and current indication criteria for TXA should be expanded. As for the cost-effectiveness, the TXA proved to be cost-effective with an average cost of R$ 61.35 (currently US$16) per year of life saved.
The use of TXA in trauma setting seems to be effective, efficient and cost-effective in the various groups of polytrauma patients. Its use in massive transfusion protocols should be the subject of further investigations.
Developed by Surya MKT