Revista ABCd (São Paulo). 22 Aug, 2023


Júlio Cezar Uili COELHO
Marco Aurélio Raeder da COSTA
Marcelo ENNE
Orlando Jorge Martins TORRES
Wellington ANDRAUS
Antonio Carlos Ligocki CAMPOS

Acute cholecystitis (AC) is an acute inflammatory process of the gallbladder that may be associated with potentially severe complications, such as

empyema, gangrene, perforation of the gallbladder, and sepsis. The gold standard treatment for AC is laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, for a small group

of AC patients, the risk of laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be very high, mainly in the elderly with associated severe diseases. In these critically ill patients,

percutaneous cholecystostomy or endoscopic ultrasound gallbladder drainage may be a temporary therapeutic option, a bridge to cholecystectomy. The

objective of this Brazilian College of Digestive Surgery Position Paper is to present new advances in AC treatment in high-risk surgical patients to help surgeons,

endoscopists, and physicians select the best treatment for their patients. The effectiveness, safety, advantages, disadvantages, and outcomes of each procedure

are discussed. The main conclusions are: a) AC patients with elevated surgical risk must be preferably treated in tertiary hospitals where surgical, radiological,

and endoscopic expertise and resources are available; b) The optimal treatment modality for high-surgical-risk patients should be individualized based on

clinical conditions and available expertise; c) Laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains an excellent option of treatment, mainly in hospitals in which percutaneous

or endoscopic gallbladder drainage is not available; d) Percutaneous cholecystostomy and endoscopic gallbladder drainage should be performed only in wellequipped

hospitals with experienced interventional radiologist and/or endoscopist; e) Cholecystostomy catheter should be removed after resolution of AC.

However, in patients who have no clinical condition to undergo cholecystectomy, the catheter may be maintained for a prolonged period or even definitively; f)

If the cholecystostomy catheter is maintained for a long period of time several complications may occur, such as bleeding, bile leakage, obstruction, pain at the

insertion site, accidental removal of the catheter, and recurrent AC; g) The ideal waiting time between cholecystostomy and cholecystectomy has not yet been

established and ranges from immediately after clinical improvement to months. h) Long waiting periods between cholecystostomy and cholecystectomy may

be associated with new episodes of acute cholecystitis, multiple hospital readmissions, and increased costs. Finally, when selecting the best treatment option

other aspects should also be considered, such as costs, procedures available at the medical center, and the patient’s desire. The patient and his family should

be fully informed about all treatment options, so they can help making the final decision.

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