Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis is an essential component of perioperative
care. The use of prophylactic regimens of antibiotics is a well-established practice that is encouraged
to be implemented in preoperative/perioperative protocols in order to prevent surgical site
The aim of this study was to emphasize the crucial aspects of antibiotic prophylaxis
in abdominal surgery.
Antibiotic prophylaxis is defined as the administration of antibiotics
before contamination occurs, given with the intention of preventing infection by achieving tissue
levels of antibiotics above the minimum inhibitory concentration at the time of surgical incision. It
is indicated for clean operations with prosthetic materials or in cases where severe consequences
may arise in the event of an infection. It is also suitable for all clean-contaminated and contaminated
operations. The spectrum of action is determined by the pathogens present at the surgical site.
Ideally, a single intravenous bolus dose should be administered within 60 min before the surgical
incision. An additional dose should be given in case of hemorrhage or prolonged surgery, according
to the half-life of the drug. Factors such as the patient’s weight, history of allergies, and the likelihood
of colonization by resistant bacteria should be considered. Compliance with institutional protocols
enhances the effectiveness of antibiotic use.
Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis is
associated with reduced rates of surgical site infection, hospital stay, and morbimortality.
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