Colorectal cancer is among the most common malignancies worldwide. Colonoscopy is the examination of choice for the prevention of CRC because of its great diagnostic and, especially, therapeutic capacity in relation to adenomatous lesions.
This study aimed to analyze the prevalence, macroscopic, and histological characteristics of polypoid rectal lesions resected through endoscopic techniques and assess whether endoscopic therapy is safe and efficient for treating lesions located in the rectum.
This is a retrospective observational study with an analysis of the medical records of all patients undergoing resection of rectal polyps.
A total of 123 patients with rectal lesions were evaluated, with 59 men and 64 women of mean age 56 years. All patients underwent endoscopic resection: 70% with polypectomy and 30% with wide mucosectomy. Complete colonoscopy with removal of the entire rectal lesion occurred in 91%, while in 5% the preparation was inadequate and poor clinical conditions were an impeditive factor, and in 4% surgical treatment was indicated because there was an infiltrative lesion with central ulceration. Histological evaluation showed adenomas in 3.25%, hyperplasia in 7.32%, and hamartoma in 0.81%; low-grade dysplasia was identified in 34.96%, high-grade dysplasia in 51.22%, and adenocarcinoma in 1.63%, while one case (0.81%) was classified as erosion.
Polyps in the rectum are common and were found in 37% of these colonoscopies. Adenomas with dysplasia were the most common form of Colorectal cancer . Therapeutic colonoscopy proved to be a safe and efficient method for the complete treatment of rectal lesions.
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