Revista ABCd (São Paulo). 01 Nov, 2023


Paulo Pimentel de ASSUMPÇÃO
Jéssica Manoelli Costa da SILVA
Danielle Queiroz CALCAGNO
Williams Fernandes BARRA
Geraldo ISHAK
DOI: 10.1590/0102-672020230034e1752


Metastatic gastric cancer traditionally hinders surgical treatment options, confining them to palliative procedures. The presence of metastases in these tumors is classified as M1, irrespective of their characteristics, quantity, or location. However, oligometastatic disease emerged as an intermediate state between localized and widely disseminated cancer. It exhibits diverse patterns based on metastatic disease extent, type, and location. Adequately addressing this distinctive metastatic state necessitates tailored strategies that surpass the realm of palliative care. Differentprimary tumor types present discernible scenarios of oligometastatic disease, including preferred sites of occurrence and chronological progression. Due to the novelty of this theme and the heterogeneity of the disease, uncertainties still exist, and the ability to provide confident guidelines is challenging. Currently, there are no effective predictors to determine the response and provide clear indications for surgical interventions and systemic treatments in oligometastatic disease. Treatment decisions are commonly based on apparent disease control by systemic therapies, with a short observation period and imaging assessments. Nonetheless, the inherent risk of misinterpretation remains a constant concern. The emergence of novel technologies and therapeutic modalities, such as immunotherapy, cellular therapy, and adoptive therapies, holds the potential to reshape the landscape of surgical treatment for the oligometastatic disease in gastric cancer, expanding the surgeon’s role in this multidisciplinary approach. Prospective tools for patient selection in oligometastatic gastric cancer are being explored. Using non-invasive, cost-effective, widely available imaging techniques that provide real-time information may revolutionize medical practice, ensuring precision medicine accessibility, even in resource-constrained small healthcare facilities. Incorporating molecular classifications, liquid biopsies, and radiomic analysis in a complementary protocol will augment patient selection precision for surgical intervention in oligometastasis. Hopefully, these advancements will render surgeries unnecessary in many cases by providing highly effective alternative treatments.

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