Some studies have suggested that preoperative chemotherapy for hepatic colorectal metastases may cause hepatic injury and increase perioperative morbidity and mortality.
To evaluate the prevalence of hepatic steatosis in patients undergoing preoperative chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer.
Observational retrospective cohort study in which 166 patients underwent 185 hepatectomies for metastatic colorectal cancer with or without associated preoperative chemotherapy from 2004 to 2011. The data were obtained from a review of the medical records and an analysis of the anatomopathological report on the non-tumor portion of the surgical specimen. The study sample was divided into two groups: those who were exposed and those who were unexposed to chemotherapy.
From the hepatectomies, 136 cases (73.5%) underwent preoperative chemotherapy, with most (62.5%) using a regimen of 5-fluorouracil + leucovorin. A 40% greater risk of cell damage was detected in 62% of the exposed group. The predominant histological pattern of the cell damage was steatosis, which was detected in 51% of the exposed cases. Exposure to chemotherapy increased the risk of steatosis by 2.2 fold. However, when the risk factors were controlled, only the presence of risk of hepatopathy was associated with steatosis, with a relative risk of 4 (2.7-5.9).
Patients exposed to chemotherapy have 2.2 times the risk of developing hepatic steatosis, and its occurrence is associated with the presence of predisposing factors such as diabetes mellitus and hepatopathy.
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