Revista ABCd (São Paulo). 10 Jul, 2024


José Roberto ALVES
Luis Felipe Mondardo SPENGLER
Leonardo Busch JUSTINO
Gustavo Busch JUSTINO
Iago Koerich SILVA
Enio Campos AMICO


Umbilical and epigastric hernias are among the most common hernias of the abdominal wall; however, there is a lack of standardization for their treatment.


To clarify the controversies regarding therapeutic possibilities, indications, and surgical techniques for umbilical and epigastric hernia repair.


A systematic review and qualitative analysis of randomized clinical trials published in the last 20 years, involving adults (aged 18 years and over) with umbilical and/or epigastric hernias, was performed by systematically searching the PubMed/Medline, Cochrane, SciELO, and LILACS databases. The risk of bias in individual studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.


Initially, 492 studies were selected and, subsequently, 15 randomized controlled clinical trials were chosen that met the inclusion criteria and underwent full reading and qualitative analysis, considering possible bias.


This review concluded that it is evident the superiority of the use of meshes in the repair of epigastric/primary umbilical hernias with a defect larger than 1 cm, even in certain emergency situations. However, suture repair is a good option for patients with a defect smaller than 1 cm. In the laparoscopic approach, recent evidence points towards possible superiority in fixation with fibrin sealant, and fascial defect closure is recommended. In addition, due to a scarcity of randomized controlled trials with low risk of bias, further studies are needed on types, positioning and fixation techniques, as well as the real role of video-assisted laparoscopic surgery in the correction of hernias, especially umbilical.

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